Publicacion: In Search of Forage for Sub Humid and Semiarid Zones: The Halophytes Promise to Prevent Forage Scarcity and Mitigate Disasters in the American Gran Chaco
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Año: 2014 ISBN:
Idioma: Inglés Link externo: ...
Tipo: Abstract
 
Resumen:
Bolivian Chaco represents around 13 percentage of the American Gran Chaco, it is an ecosystem consisting of three ecological zones ranging from sub humid to semi arid where livestock activity is developed, whose diet is based in browse some Mimosaceas and Legume species, and several xerophytes shrub species that form part of the largest Xerophitic forest in the world, spaces available for production of forage grasses are reduced due to multiple constraints. In the Chaco plain zone, livestock activity is concentrated, the average annual temperature is 23.4ÂșC with a mean maximum of 35.5 and a low of 16.2 ° C. In the Chaco the canopy forest is dominated by some tree species (Schinopsis sp, Aspidosperma sp, Chlorisia sp.), mainly; the forest herbs layer has a diverse broadleaf herbaceous and grasses, interspersed with species of bromeliads. Livestock production is done in extensive system, but comprehensive strategic production technologies including agro forestry systems, forest and livestock management, forage conservation and management of water resources are attempted. The growing demand for achieving food security by countering the effects of climate change expressed in recurrent drought, drives the search for new alternatives for available forage during the dry season. Experimental plots were installed at four locations for the introduction and spread of Chenopodium halophyte shrubs (Atriplex halimus and Atriplex nummularia), selected for their high tolerance to drought, extreme changes in temperature and poor soil, desalination capacity and high nutritional for livestock feed. To optimize shrubs adaptive characteristics and leaf development under local environmental conditions, five variables of biomass increment were measured in four different soil types and vegetation associations surrounding plants, using three and six months old seedlings; 10 methods of planting seeds treated with different concentrations of salt compounds were experienced to measure efficiency germination and two vegetative propagation methods were performed; both at different times of the year. Multi varied analyzes reflect significant differences in phenological development (p
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