Publicacion: Detection of Degraded Areas in Semiarid Regions: case study in the Municipality of Nova Russas-Ceará/Brazil
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Año: 2014 ISBN:
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Tipo: Abstract
In semiarid regions, physical and environmental characteristics with low rainfall, reduced groundwater accumulation capacity, high rates of evaporation and salinity of soils, make it fragile and vulnerable environments. In addition to compromising the biodiversity and cause the appearance of degraded areas or in process of desertification directly affects the development of economic activities. Thus, the elaboration of strategies for living with drought, that reconcile the quality of life of the population and the conservation of natural resources, are increasingly necessary. From this need, the work was conducted in the municipality of Nova Russas, located in semi-arid region of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. Some sectors have been identified in areas with high stage of degradation, and other susceptible to this process. The methodology used for the detection of degraded areas was the geoprocessing applied to the integrated analysis of the municipality. We collected data on the environmental and socioeconomic-physical characteristics, satellite images Landsat 8 the years of 1985 and 2012, both dated the month of August, besides of fields works. The degraded areas were identified in different periods, establishing four categories of use: urban area, agriculture and livestock/soil exposed (or no deep soil), vegetation and surface water bodies. The analyses were made based on these categories, raising the aspects relating to soil use and occupation, and describing the factors that led the changes found. The results were: in the year 1985 the urban areas and the agriculture, livestock /soil exposed represented 5.8 km2 and 101.75 km², respectively, in 2012 the same occupied in the municipality 7.65 km² and 278.2 km², meaning an increase of 1.03% and 37.4%. The vegetation and surface water resources presented space reduction, 1985 categories occupy 617.8 km² and 17, 34 km², reducing in the year 2012 to 444.6 km² (23.31%) and 12.11 km² (0.7 %), respectively. The increase in urban areas was due to the growth of small urban centres, which have undertaken directly other categories as the vegetation and water resources. The areas with exposed soil increased, mainly due to inadequate management practices and indiscriminate deforestation, affecting also the other categories. Thus, the paper presents a methodological approach that can be applied in semi-arid regions, which brings together different aspects to understand the dynamics of land use and the advancement of degraded areas.
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